Contribution de l’APDC à la consultation publique lancée par la Commission européenne sur le projet de communication de la Commission relative à la notion d’aide d’Etat au sens de l’article 107, paragraphe 1, du TFUE

14 mars 2014


* The present reply was drafted by a working group of the APDC, composed of the following members of the Association: Olivier Billard (Bredin Prat); Marta Giner (Norton Rose Fulbright); Adrien Giraud (Willkie Farr & Gallagher); François-Charles Laprévôte (Cleary Gottlieb); Florent Prunet (Jeantet et Associés); Léna Sersiron (Baker McKenzie); Nicolas Zacharie (Linklaters).
The members of the working group would like to thank the following persons for their collaboration in the drafting of the reply: Dounia Ababou; Geoffroy Barthet; Yohann Chevalier; Dylan Damaj; Maxime de l’Estang; Guillaume Fabre; Claire Froitzheim; Clémence Hardy; Tien Hua; Maia Spy.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents ....................................................................................................................... 2
1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 3
2 Notion of undertaking and economic activity .................................................................... 7
2.1 The Notion of Economic Unit ..................................................................................... 7
2.2 Ancillary activities ...................................................................................................... 8
2.3 Development Banks .................................................................................................... 8
2.4 Social Security............................................................................................................. 9
2.5 Infrastructures.............................................................................................................. 9
3 State Origin ...................................................................................................................... 10
3.1 Imputability ............................................................................................................... 10
3.1.1 Indicators for imputability .................................................................................. 11
3.1.2 Imputability and obligations under Union law ................................................... 13
3.2 State resources ........................................................................................................... 13
3.2.1 General principles ............................................................................................... 13
3.2.2 Controlling influence over the resources ............................................................ 14
3.2.3 State involvement in redistribution between private entities .............................. 16
4 Advantage ........................................................................................................................ 16
4.1 The notion of advantage in general ........................................................................... 17
4.2 The market economy operator (MEO) test ............................................................... 20
4.2.1 General principles ............................................................................................... 20
4.2.2 Application of the MEO test ............................................................................... 24
5 Selectivity ........................................................................................................................ 32
5.1 General principles ..................................................................................................... 32
5.2 Material selectivity .................................................................................................... 32
5.2.2 Selectivity stemming from discretionary administrative practices ..................... 32
5.2.3 The assessment of material selectivity for measures mitigating the normal charges of undertakings ...................................................................................... 33
6 Effect on trade and competition ....................................................................................... 34
6.1 General principles ..................................................................................................... 34
6.2 Distortion of competition .......................................................................................... 35
6.3 Effect on trade ........................................................................................................... 35
...